Experiences of Young Adults With Deaf-Blindness After High School
Research Takeaway: Many young people who are deaf-blind struggle to find and keep jobs after leaving school. Our study found a number of factors linked to better odds of deaf-blind youth finding a job and keeping that job for at least six months.
Many young people who are deaf-blind struggle to find employment after leaving school. The transition to life after high school can be difficult for these youth. Many of them have complicated medical needs, additional disabilities, or behavioral problems.
Prior to this study, there was no research looking at employment among deaf-blind youth. Our study explores factors that are related to employment for young people who are deaf-blind. We focused on factors that occurred while these young people were in high school. We explored how these factors impact the odds of a youth finding a paid job and then keeping that job for at least six months.
Among the deaf-blind young people in our study, a little more than half (53.8%) had a paid job at some point within eight years of leaving high school. Only 38.5% had held a post-high school job for more than six months.
We found two factors linked to higher odds of finding a paying job after leaving school:
- Paid high school work experience: Deaf-blind youth were more likely to find employment if they had worked for pay at some point while they were in high school. In fact, youth with work experience were almost three times more likely to find employment than youth with no work experience.
- Parent expectations: The higher parents’ expectations were that their child could get a paid job and earn enough to be self-supporting, the more likely their child was to find a job after leaving high school.
We found three factors linked to higher odds of maintaining a post-high school job for at least six months:
- Receiving vocational-education services: Deaf-blind young people were more likely to maintain a job if they had received career counseling, help finding a job, job-skills training, or vocational-education services at some point during high school. The youth who received these services were more than twice as likely to maintain a job for at least six months than young people who did not get these services.
- Parent expectations: The higher parents’ expectations were that their child could get a paid job and earn enough to be self-supporting, the more likely their child was to maintain a job for at least six months.
- Number of additional disabilities: Deaf-blind youth with a high number of additional disabilities whose parents had moderate to high expectations for them were very likely to keep a job for at least six months. On the other hand, deaf-blind youth with additional disabilities whose parents had low expectations for them were very unlikely to maintain a job.
- Learn about the employment possibilities for your child. In our study, parent expectations were strongly related to whether a young person would find a job and keep it for at least six months. If you believe that your child is capable of working, you can set high expectations for your child from a young age.
This is especially important if your child has additional disabilities. You might have serious doubts about your child’s ability to work, but it is possible, with the right supports. Our findings indicate that, if you commit to the idea that your child can work, your child is very likely to work.
- Connect your child with a mentor. When possible, connect your child with individuals who are also deaf-blind and who work in a career field of interest to your child. Exposure to working individuals who are also deaf-blind can help both you and your child set high expectations for future employment. Organizations for individuals who are deaf-blind and their families are great places to meet mentors and role models.
- Encourage your child to gain paid work experience during high school. Deaf-blind youth are one of the disability groups that are least likely to work during high school. Among the young people in our study, less than half (44.0%) held a paid job at any time during high school. Encourage your child to seek paid employment while he or she is in high school. Your child’s service providers can help you facilitate the job-search process.
Ensure that your child’s service providers are working with your child on the skills needed for employment, beginning at an early age. Confirm that your child’s individualized education program includes specialized services to prepare him or her to work. Whenever possible, these services should be provided by experts in deaf-blindness.
- Make sure your child has access to vocational-education services. These services improved the odds of deaf-blind young people maintaining employment, and they should be a regular part of the high school curriculum for all young people who are deaf-blind. Contact your state vocational rehabilitation agency to begin receiving services to prepare for employment while your child is in high school.
We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), which explored the experiences of a nationally representative sample of youth with disabilities during secondary school and the transition to post-school life. Data were gathered from 2001-2009 and included interviews, surveys, and school transcripts. Our sample for this study included about 100 deaf-blind young people.
Cmar, J.L., McDonnall, M.C., & Markoski, K.M. (2018). In-school predictors of post-school employment for youth who are deaf-blind. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 41(4), 223-233. DOI: 10.1177/2165143417736057
Findings taken from the following article: Cmar, J. L., McDonnall, M. C., & Markoski, K. M. (2017). In-school predictors of post-school employment for youth who are deaf-blind. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/2165143417736057.
For more information about this project, visit the project overview page: Exploration of Secondary Data to Increase our Knowledge About Subpopulations of Individuals who are Blind or Visually Impaired and WIOA Impacts.. For additional deaf-blindness resources, visit our products page.
Keys to a Successful Transition: Ensuring Youth with Visual Impairments are ready for Career and College
Youth with visual impairments face a tough job market. Recent instability in the economy has disproportionately affected young people, making it hard for them to secure jobs. This challenge is magnified for youth with visual impairments, who must overcome additional barriers to enter the workforce.
State Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) programs provide transition services to youth to help them transition smoothly from high school to either college or employment. Families, schools, and VR professionals work together to aid each young person in discovering their career interests and helping them master the skills they need to achieve success.
Researchers from the National Research and Training Center (NRTC) on Blindness and Low Vision have completed years of research about transition-age youth and the factors that contribute to their success in employment. Across eight published studies, researchers used a variety of techniques to answer the question: What does it take to prepare youth with visual impairments to successfully obtain employment?
The summaries below highlight three key themes from our research: early work experience, academic achievement, and social/internal skills. Following these overviews, a series of research takeaways provide suggestions for ways to put these research findings into action.
Having work experience while still in high school is associated with future employment for youth with visual impairments. Numerous NRTC studies found that, if a young person gains work experience early in life, they are more likely to successfully obtain employment when they are older (McDonnall & Crudden, 2009; McDonnall, 2010b; McDonnall, 2011; Giesen & Cavenaugh, 2012).
However, not all jobs are created equal. One study found that most youth jobs last less than six months and do not require high levels of skill (McDonnall, 2010a). In another study, school-sponsored work experiences had no effect on future career success for visually impaired youth (McDonnall & O’Mally, 2012). Such findings indicate that not every job carries equal benefits, and it’s important to consider the quality of a work experience before accepting a job. A few factors to consider:
- Finding jobs independently: The ability to secure a job as a teenager, without help from adults, demonstrates initiative and problem-solving skills, and is associated with employment later in life (McDonnall & O’Mally, 2012).
- Holding multiple jobs: One study found that the odds of finding employment as adults increased with each additional job held while a young adult (McDonnall, 2011).
- Holding jobs for longer periods of time: Having multiple jobs is good, but this positive effect could be diminished if students hold multiple short-term positions, rather than a few, longer-term experiences (McDonnall & O’Mally, 2012).
Why is early work experience so important? A number of factors may be at play, since early work experience:
- Allows students to explore career interests and discover what they like to do
- Acclimates students to workplace norms and helps them develop soft skills, such as professional attire and workplace etiquette
- Gives students a chance to develop a network of professional contacts
- Provides an opportunity for students to develop important professional skills
- Work experience on a resume signals to prospective employers that a student can successfully participate in a workplace, making them less of an employment “risk”
While gaining work experience is important for youth with visual impairments, academic achievement is also essential. Multiple studies found that higher levels of academic achievement increase the odds of finding a job later in life (McDonnall & Crudden, 2009; McDonnall, 2010b; McDonnall, 2011).
Academic achievement can take place at a variety of levels. Two studies looked at aptitude in verbal and math skills during the high school years and found that, the better students performed in these areas, the more likely they were to find a job as adults (McDonnall & Crudden, 2009; McDonnall, 2010). Academic achievement during the college years is also important. One study found that completion of a postsecondary degree was the strongest predictor of full time employment later in life (McDonnall, 2011).
The good news is that youths with visual impairments tend to complete high school and attend college at rates similar to those of their non-visually impaired peers. However, these findings around academic achievement indicate that mere school attendance is not enough. Attention must also be paid to content knowledge, ensuring that youth with visual impairments are mastering academic skills, accumulating knowledge, and successfully acquiring academic credentials and diplomas.
A final component of preparing youth with visual impairments to successfully find a job are social and internal skills. Social skills encompass a wide variety of behaviors, from an understanding of interpersonal boundaries to the ability to recognize others’ emotions. One study found that having good peer social skills increases the odds of gaining part-time employment significantly (McDonnall, 2011). Another study that asked a focus group of VR professionals to discuss success factors for transition-age youth pinpointed social skills as an essential need (Crudden, 2012). In particular, these professionals pointed out the need to start developing youths’ social skills as early as possible, beginning in the elementary grades.
Two internal skills in particular were identified by the research as important for predicting employment among youths with visual impairments: self-determination and locus of control (McDonnall & Crudden, 2009). The two concepts are related: young people with a strong locus of control have mastered one aspect of self-determination. These skills help youths understand that they have control over what happens to them and to feel powerful. This confidence may prompt young people to take a more active role in their career development, priming them for employment success later in life.
- Young people with visual impairments should consider work experience an essential part of their high school years. Jobs can take place after school, on weekends, during the summer, or during holiday breaks. They may take the form of paid jobs, internships, or job training programs. However, all jobs are not created equal. Before a student looks for a job, consider important factors such as type of work, how the job will be obtained, and how long the job will last.
- Don’t neglect other essential aspects of personal development in favor of work experience. A balance must be found. Neglecting academics or skill development in favor of working may end up negatively impacting a young person in the long run. But, completely neglecting work experience in favor of academics, which youth are sometimes encouraged to do, is not desirable either.
- In order to encourage young people to develop a strong locus of control and sense of self-determination, provide them with opportunities for decision-making and support them in their choices. One important way of achieving this could be to encourage young people to take a more active role in working with their teachers and/or VR counselors.
- For both academic and social skills, the earlier development begins, the better. Transition services are required to be initiated by age 16, but in some cases it may be appropriate to begin services at a younger age. The earlier gaps in academic and social skills are identified, the more quickly they can be improved through intervention and training. Don’t hesitate to advocate for an earlier start to transition services!
Crudden, A. (2012). Transition to employment for students with visual impairments: Components for success. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(7), 389-399.
Giesen, J.M., & Cavenaugh, B.S. (2012). Transition-age youths with visual impairments in vocational rehabilitation: A new look at competitive outcomes and services. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(8), 475-487.
McDonnall, M.C. (2010a). The employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(5), 146-152.
McDonnall, M.C. (2010b). Factors predicting post-high school employment for young adults with visual impairments. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 54(1), 36-45.
McDonnall, M.C. (2011). Predictors of employment for youths with visual impairments: Findings from the Second National Longitudinal Transition Study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 105(8), 453-466.
McDonnall, M.C., & Crudden, A. (2009). Factors affecting the successful employment of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(6), 329-341.
McDonnall, M.C., & O’Mally, J. (2012). Characteristics of early work experiences and their association with future employment. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 106(3), 133-144.
The Effect of Career Mentoring on Employment Outcomes for College Students Who Are Legally Blind
Research Takeaway: College students who are blind or visually impaired (BVI) showed increases in assertive job hunting behavior when they establish a relationship with a career mentor who was blind and working in the same career field.
College students who are BVI often face unique challenges when trying to find employment. Some of these challenges are due to lack of work experience and limited information about how to navigate the job search in their field of interest as a person with BVI. Career mentors help students by sharing work experiences and discussing specific concerns related to their career field.
We wanted to know if working with career mentors who are blind and in the career area of interest to the student makes a difference in employment outcomes for college students who are BVI. This study focused on pairing legally blind college students who were within one year of graduating with mentors who are also legally blind and employed or recently retired.
Mentors served as role models by addressing questions about the career field of interest and concerns specific to visual impairment, including:
- Job search and interview preparation and process
- Transportation to and from work
- Negative employer attitudes
- Social, communication, and job skills
- Requesting accommodations
Self-advocacy and assertiveness
- Career mentors can help college students who are BVI prepare for the job search process and employment. Students particularly appreciated working with a mentor who is blind because mentors were able to address topics related to blindness, including disclosure, social skills, career exploration, accommodation planning, networking, and using assistive technology in work settings. Results also suggest that students with mentors may have been more focused and efficient in their job search.
- Students who worked with a mentor noted significant growth in their level of assertiveness in job hunting. Students reported feeling most assertive in asking friends for job leads, asking for more information about jobs, and discussing work experience. For students who did not work with a mentor, there was no improvement in their assertiveness scores.
- Students in the mentoring program showed some improvement with both confidence in the job search and career adaptability, although they did not increase more than the students without mentors. All students were better able to respond and make adjustments necessary to be more successful.
- Most participants indicated that the location of the mentor, local or distance, was not as important as other factors (e.g., being blind and being in the same career field) to benefits received from the overall mentoring process.
- Seek career mentoring throughout your college experience. Career mentoring is a continual process and should begin as early as possible. The longer you receive mentoring, the more career exploration and skill development you can gain prior to your post-graduation job search.
- Students of all ages can benefit from a career mentor relationship. If you are an older, non-traditional college student or job seeker, a mentoring relationship may be very helpful for you. If you lost your vision later in life and are making a career change, working with a blind mentor may be especially valuable.
- Talk to your VR counselor about getting involved with area business professionals. Professionals who are BVI are extremely interested in mentoring students and offering guidance throughout the employment process. Ask for referrals to local professionals in your career field who are BVI, and find out if mentor groups or interactive learning communities are available in your region.
- Consider a distance mentor. If a local mentor in your career field is not available, consider finding a mentor in another location. AFB’s CareerConnect can help with that.
We recruited 51 college students and 26 mentors from across the United States. These participants took part in a year-long study that included several evaluations and reports for sharing information and feedback about their experience working with or without a mentor.
The NRTC provides employment and mentoring resources to help guide the mentoring and job hunting process:
O'Mally, J. & Antonelli, K. (2016). The effect of career mentoring on employment outcomes for students who are legally blind. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 110(5), 295-307.
O'Mally, J., & Steverson, A. (2017). Reflections on developing an employment mentoring program for college students who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 111(3), 271-276.
For more information about the mentoring project, see the project overview page: An Employment Mentoring Project for College Students who are Blind
Transition Activity Calendar
This Transition Activity Calendar designed by The National Research and Training Center on Blindness and Low Vision (NRTC) at Mississippi State University lists tasks which students who are blind or visually impaired need to complete as early as middle school in order to be ready to attend college. From taking the right high school courses, to learning to use the most appropriate assistive technology, to career exploration and finding the colleges best suited to the selected course of study, to what the student is looking for in campus life, the demands of good preparation start early and continue through 12th grade and the summer before the first Fall semester of college.
Here we list college preparation, school to work, and independent living programs run by Vocational Rehabilitation, private agencies, special education programs, and/or colleges and universities. These program offerings change often, but we will update as needed.